FOMC Meeting: Impacts of Interest Rates Changes on Cryptocurrency

6 min readMar 20, 2024

The Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC) plays a pivotal role in shaping the monetary policy of the United States. This committee, a key component of the Federal Reserve System, is charged with the responsibility of guiding open market operations, a crucial tool for influencing the nation’s economic trajectory. Comprising 12 members, including seven from the Board of Governors, the president of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York, and four rotating presidents from other Reserve Banks, the FOMC meets eight times a year to deliberate on the direction of monetary policy.

The FOMC’s decisions on whether to buy or sell U.S. government securities in the open market are instrumental in promoting sustainable economic growth. These actions directly impact the interest rates, thereby influencing various sectors of the economy, including the burgeoning field of cryptocurrencies. The committee’s balanced composition of hawks, doves, and moderates ensures a comprehensive approach to monetary policy, reflecting diverse economic perspectives.

Jerome Powell, serving as the chair, embodies a moderate stance towards monetary policy, advocating for measured adjustments to accommodate evolving economic conditions. Under his leadership, the committee’s decisions are carefully calibrated to strike a balance between fostering economic growth and maintaining price stability.

The semi-private nature of FOMC meetings fuels widespread speculation among investors and analysts, who keenly await the outcomes to gauge potential shifts in the economic landscape. The subsequent adjustments in interest rates, resulting from these meetings, have far-reaching implications not only for traditional financial markets but also for the relatively new domain of cryptocurrencies.

The Link Between Interest Rates and Cryptocurrency

Understanding the intricate relationship between interest rates and the financial markets is crucial for navigating the complex landscape of cryptocurrency investment. Interest rates, set by central banks such as the Federal Reserve through various monetary policy tools, serve as a barometer for the health and direction of the economy. These rates directly influence the cost of borrowing and the return on savings, thereby shaping investor behavior across a spectrum of assets, including traditional equities, bonds, and, by extension, cryptocurrencies.

The Federal Reserve employs several mechanisms to modulate the money supply and, consequently, interest rates. Open Market Operations (OMOs) are at the forefront of these strategies, involving the buying and selling of government securities. When the Fed purchases securities, it injects liquidity into the banking system, lowering interest rates and encouraging borrowing and spending. Conversely, selling securities tightens the money supply, elevates interest rates, and generally cools off economic activity.

These actions do not occur in isolation; they ripple through the financial ecosystem, affecting short-term rates and, indirectly, long-term interest rates, foreign exchange rates, and overall credit availability. This, in turn, influences the demand for investment, employment rates, and broader economic output. The Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC) plays a pivotal role in this process, with its decisions on OMOs setting the tone for the Fed’s monetary stance.

In the realm of investment, the concept of “risk-on” and “risk-off” behaviors is closely tied to these interest rate fluctuations. In a “risk-on” environment, typically associated with low-interest rates, investors are more inclined to seek higher returns by venturing into riskier assets, including stocks and, increasingly, cryptocurrencies. The allure of significant gains outweighs the perceived risk, given the cheap cost of borrowing and the lower returns offered by safer assets.

Conversely, a “risk-off” scenario emerges when interest rates rise. The increased cost of borrowing and the more attractive returns on safer investments, such as government bonds, prompt investors to shy away from riskier assets. This shift can lead to decreased liquidity and higher volatility in the cryptocurrency market, as it becomes one of the first asset classes investors retreat from in search of safer harbors.

Current Scenario and Potential Impacts

In recent times, the cryptocurrency market has exhibited a heightened sensitivity to interest rate adjustments, mirroring the volatility observed in traditional risk assets. The Federal Reserve’s moves in 2022 to elevate the Fed funds rate in response to economic pressures have had a palpable effect on digital currencies, contributing to a decline in prices as investors recalibrated their risk appetite. This trend underscored the growing correlation between crypto assets and conventional financial markets, challenging the notion of cryptocurrencies as a detached haven.

However, the landscape began to shift as the aggressive rate hikes of 2022 gave way to a more cautious approach in 2023, with signals pointing towards a potential cessation or reversal in rate adjustments. This change in trajectory provided a semblance of support to both the cryptocurrency and commodities markets, with assets like oil finding a tentative footing after previous declines. The anticipation of a moderated rate hike path, spurred in part by banking sector instabilities, has ignited investor interest in riskier assets, including cryptocurrencies, in the hope of less severe rate increases moving forward.

The latter part of 2023 witnessed a resurgence in cryptocurrency valuations, driven not only by the easing interest rate environment but also by regulatory developments and market anticipations. The approval of Bitcoin ETFs by the SEC, for instance, played a significant role in bolstering investor confidence and contributing to a strong finish for the year, despite a subsequent moderation in Bitcoin prices following the approvals

Preview of the Upcoming FOMC Meeting, March 2024

As the financial community turns its gaze toward the forthcoming Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC) meeting, expectations are coalescing around the anticipation that interest rates will be maintained at their current levels. With the Fed funds target range poised at a 22-year zenith of 5.25% to 5.5%, the central bank’s strategy appears to be finely tuned towards tempering inflation while navigating the U.S. economy towards a ‘soft landing’. This approach aims to reel inflation towards the 2% target without precipitating a recession, a delicate balancing act given the current economic milieu.

The year has witnessed a buoyant S&P 500, buoyed by optimism that inflation is aligning more favorably. However, emerging concerns suggest that the final phases of the Fed’s inflation containment strategy might encounter unforeseen challenges. The intricacies of the economic landscape, marked by a blend of resilience and underlying inflationary pressures, pose a nuanced backdrop to the FOMC’s deliberations.

In this context, the cryptocurrency markets stand on the precipice of potential volatility, heavily influenced by the Fed’s monetary policy maneuvers. A decision to hold interest rates steady, in line with current expectations, could signal continued economic strength and stability, potentially fostering a favorable environment for risk assets, including cryptocurrencies. This steadiness might encourage investors to venture into more speculative assets, seeking higher yields amidst a landscape of stabilized traditional markets.

Conversely, any unexpected shift towards rate hikes could reintroduce a wave of caution among investors, driving a retreat from riskier assets such as cryptocurrencies in favor of safer havens. The crypto markets, known for their volatility, may experience heightened fluctuations in response to such a surprise move, reflecting the intricate linkages between central bank policies and digital asset valuations.

Moreover, the Fed’s ongoing strategy to downscale its balance sheet, gradually reducing its holdings from the peak of approximately $9 trillion, signals a careful unwinding of the expansive monetary support extended during the pandemic. This reduction in Treasury securities buying, aimed at moderating the money supply while gauging the economy’s resilience, could have indirect implications for the liquidity and attractiveness of various asset classes, including cryptocurrencies.




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